Now that we’ve got basic SQL queries going, we want to collect some actionable intel. A good measure of any SQL database performance is how well indexes are utilised.

This isn’t new

All queries we’re about to share are hardly a revelation. What we however want to achieve is to have an idea of how that information changes over time

Index utilisation

input {
	############################################################# Index Maintenance ############################################################################
	jdbc {
		id => "master_index_maintenance"
		jdbc_driver_library => "path\to\jdbc\lib\mssql-jdbc-7.2.1.jre8.jar"
		jdbc_driver_class => "com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver"
		jdbc_connection_string => "jdbc:sqlserver://<your connection string>"
		jdbc_user => nil
		schedule => "*/15 * * * *"
		statement => "	DECLARE @db_id INT
						DECLARE @db_name NVARCHAR(120)
						DECLARE @index_data TABLE(
												[database_name] NVARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,
												table_name sysname NOT NULL, 
												index_name sysname NULL, 
												index_type TINYINT NOT NULL, 
												user_seeks bigint NOT NULL, 
												user_scans bigint NOT NULL, 
												user_lookups bigint NOT NULL, 
												user_updates bigint NOT NULL
											   );

						SET NOCOUNT ON
						DECLARE @dbs table ([db_name] sysname)
						DECLARE @db_query_sql nvarchar(4000)
						SET @db_query_sql='select ''?'' as [db_name] from [?].sys.tables t WHERE t.name = ''Users''';

						INSERT INTO @dbs ([db_name]) EXEC sp_msforeachdb @db_query_sql
						SET NOCOUNT OFF

						DECLARE db_id_cursor CURSOR FOR SELECT DB_ID([db_name]), [db_name] FROM @dbs FOR READ ONLY 
						OPEN db_id_cursor  
						FETCH NEXT FROM db_id_cursor INTO @db_id, @db_name;  
						WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0  
						BEGIN
							DECLARE @sql NVARCHAR(MAX) = CAST(N'USE [' + @db_name + '];
							
							SELECT ''' + @db_name + ''', t.[name], ix.[name], ix.[type], us.user_seeks, us.user_scans, us.user_lookups, us.user_updates
							FROM sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats us
							INNER JOIN sys.indexes ix ON us.object_id = ix.object_id and ix.index_id = us.index_id
							INNER JOIN sys.tables t ON ix.object_id = t.object_id	
							WHERE us.database_id = ' + CAST(@db_id AS NVARCHAR(10)) AS NVARCHAR(MAX));

							INSERT INTO @index_data EXEC sys.sp_executesql @sql;
							FETCH NEXT FROM db_id_cursor INTO @db_id, @db_name;  
						END
						CLOSE db_id_cursor
						DEALLOCATE db_id_cursor
						SELECT * FROM @index_data"
		add_field => {
						"sql_instance" => "SQL2"
					}
	}
	################################################################################################################################################################	
}
output {
	elasticsearch {
		hosts => "elasticsearch:9200"
		index => "sql-index-stats-%{+YYYY.MM}"            
	}
}

Missing indexes

This one is a bit more interesing in a sense that we will get actual index hints. It is not a silver bullet though – this still needs to be analysed by humans for best results.

input {
	############################################################# Master sp_WhoIsActive ############################################################################
	jdbc {
		id => "master_missing_indexes"
		jdbc_driver_library => "path\to\jdbc\lib\mssql-jdbc-7.2.1.jre8.jar"
		jdbc_driver_class => "com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver"
		jdbc_connection_string => "jdbc:sqlserver://<your connection string>"
		jdbc_user => nil
		schedule => "1 */2 * * *"
		statement => "	DECLARE @db_id INT
						DECLARE @db_name NVARCHAR(120)
						DECLARE @index_data TABLE(
												[database_name] NVARCHAR(128) NOT NULL,						
												table_name sysname NOT NULL, 
												unique_compiles bigint NOT NULL,
												user_seeks bigint NOT NULL, 
												user_scans bigint NOT NULL, 
												avg_total_user_cost float NULL, 
												avg_user_impact float NULL, 
												overall_impact float NOT NULL,
												sql_code NVARCHAR(MAX) NOT NULL
											   );

						SET NOCOUNT ON
						DECLARE @dbs table ([db_name] sysname)
						DECLARE @db_query_sql nvarchar(4000)
						SET @db_query_sql='select ''?'' as [db_name] from [?].sys.tables t WHERE t.name = ''Users''';

						INSERT INTO @dbs ([db_name]) EXEC sp_msforeachdb @db_query_sql
						SET NOCOUNT OFF

						DECLARE db_id_cursor CURSOR FOR SELECT DB_ID([db_name]), [db_name] FROM @dbs FOR READ ONLY 
						OPEN db_id_cursor  
						FETCH NEXT FROM db_id_cursor INTO @db_id, @db_name;  
						WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0  
						BEGIN
							DECLARE @sql NVARCHAR(MAX) = CAST(N'USE [' + @db_name + '];
							
							WITH index_definitions (table_name, unique_compiles, user_seeks, users_scans, avg_total_user_cost, 
							avg_user_impact, [overall_impact], column_names, included_columns) 
							AS (
								SELECT TOP(600) object_name(c.object_id) AS table_name, 
								a.unique_compiles, a.user_seeks, a.user_scans, a.avg_total_user_cost, a.avg_user_impact, 
								a.avg_total_user_cost * a.avg_user_impact * (a.user_seeks + a.user_scans) AS [overall_impact],
								case when c.equality_columns is not null and c.inequality_columns is not null then c.equality_columns + '', '' + c.inequality_columns
								when c.equality_columns is not null and c.inequality_columns is null then c.equality_columns
								when c.inequality_columns is not null then c.inequality_columns
								END AS column_names,
								c.included_columns
								FROM sys.dm_db_missing_index_group_stats a
								inner join sys.dm_db_missing_index_groups b ON a.group_handle = b.index_group_handle
								inner join sys.dm_db_missing_index_details c on c.index_handle = b.index_handle
								where database_id = ' + CAST(@db_id AS NVARCHAR(10)) + '
								and equality_columns is not null
							)
							SELECT '''+ @db_name +''' AS [database], table_name, unique_compiles, user_seeks, users_scans, avg_total_user_cost, avg_user_impact, overall_impact, ''CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX IX_'' + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(index_definitions.column_names, ''], ['', ''_''), ''['', ''''), '']'', '''') 
									+ '' on '' + index_definitions.table_name + '' ('' + index_definitions.column_names + '') INCLUDE ('' + index_definitions.included_columns + '')''  AS [sql_code]
							FROM index_definitions WHERE index_definitions.included_columns IS NOT NULL
							UNION 
							SELECT '''+ @db_name +''' AS [database], table_name, unique_compiles, user_seeks, users_scans, avg_total_user_cost, avg_user_impact, overall_impact, ''CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX IX_'' + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE(index_definitions.column_names, ''], ['', ''_''), ''['', ''''), '']'', '''') 
									+ '' on '' + index_definitions.table_name + '' ('' + index_definitions.column_names + '')'' AS [sql_code]
							FROM index_definitions WHERE index_definitions.included_columns IS NULL' AS NVARCHAR(MAX));

							INSERT INTO @index_data EXEC sys.sp_executesql @sql;
							FETCH NEXT FROM db_id_cursor INTO @db_id, @db_name;  
						END
						CLOSE db_id_cursor
						DEALLOCATE db_id_cursor
						SELECT * FROM @index_data;"
		add_field => {
						"sql_instance" => "SQL2"
					}
	}
	################################################################################################################################################################	
}
output {
	elasticsearch {
		hosts => "elasticsearch:9200"
		index => "sql-missing-indexes-%{+YYYY.MM}"            
	}
}

With data collection out of the way it’s time to move on to plotting graphs. Grafana is quite easy to pick up so instead of repeating official documentation we’d share a few dashboards we have in place

{
  "annotations": {
    "list": [
      {
        "builtIn": 1,
        "datasource": "-- Grafana --",
        "enable": true,
        "hide": true,
        "iconColor": "rgba(0, 211, 255, 1)",
        "name": "Annotations & Alerts",
        "type": "dashboard"
      }
    ]
  },
  "editable": true,
  "gnetId": null,
  "graphTooltip": 0,
  "id": 33,
  "iteration": 1584410507264,
  "links": [],
  "panels": [
    {
      "collapsed": false,
      "datasource": null,
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 1,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 0
      },
      "id": 74,
      "panels": [],
      "title": "Index usage",
      "type": "row"
    },
    {
      "columns": [],
      "datasource": "Elasticsearch [index-stats]",
      "fontSize": "100%",
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 5,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 1
      },
      "id": 72,
      "interval": "1h",
      "links": [],
      "maxPerRow": null,
      "options": {},
      "pageSize": null,
      "repeat": "Database",
      "repeatDirection": "v",
      "scopedVars": {
        "Database": {
          "selected": true,
          "text": "All",
          "value": "All"
        }
      },
      "scroll": true,
      "showHeader": true,
      "sort": {
        "col": 4,
        "desc": true
      },
      "styles": [
        {
          "alias": "Table",
          "align": "auto",
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "pattern": "table_name.keyword",
          "type": "string"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Index",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": "value",
          "colors": [
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)"
          ],
          "decimals": 2,
          "pattern": "index_name.keyword",
          "thresholds": [
            "60",
            "80",
            "90"
          ],
          "type": "string",
          "unit": "percent"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Scans",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_scans",
          "sanitize": false,
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "none"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Seeks",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_seeks",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "none"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Lookups",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_lookups",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "none"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Updates",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_updates",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "none"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Total index usages",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "bucket",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "none"
        }
      ],
      "targets": [
        {
          "alias": "",
          "bucketAggs": [
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "table_name.keyword",
              "id": "4",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "9",
                "size": "0"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            },
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "index_name.keyword",
              "id": "3",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "9",
                "size": "0"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            }
          ],
          "hide": true,
          "metrics": [
            {
              "field": "user_scans",
              "id": "5",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_seeks",
              "id": "6",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_lookups",
              "id": "7",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_updates",
              "id": "8",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "select field",
              "id": "9",
              "meta": {},
              "pipelineVariables": [
                {
                  "name": "var1",
                  "pipelineAgg": "5"
                },
                {
                  "name": "var2",
                  "pipelineAgg": "6"
                },
                {
                  "name": "var3",
                  "pipelineAgg": "7"
                }
              ],
              "settings": {
                "script": "params.var1+params.var2+params.var3"
              },
              "type": "bucket_script"
            }
          ],
          "query": "database_name.keyword:$Database",
          "refId": "A",
          "timeField": "@timestamp"
        },
        {
          "bucketAggs": [
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "table_name.keyword",
              "id": "3",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "4",
                "size": "0"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            },
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "index_name.keyword",
              "id": "9",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "4",
                "size": "10"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            }
          ],
          "metrics": [
            {
              "field": "user_scans",
              "id": "4",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_seeks",
              "id": "5",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_lookups",
              "id": "6",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_updates",
              "id": "7",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            }
          ],
          "query": "database_name.keyword:$Database",
          "refId": "B",
          "timeField": "@timestamp"
        }
      ],
      "timeFrom": null,
      "timeShift": null,
      "title": "Index usage - $Database",
      "transform": "table",
      "type": "table"
    },
    {
      "collapsed": false,
      "datasource": null,
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 1,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 6
      },
      "id": 76,
      "panels": [],
      "title": "Underutilised indexes",
      "type": "row"
    },
    {
      "cacheTimeout": null,
      "columns": [],
      "datasource": "Elasticsearch [index-stats]",
      "fontSize": "100%",
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 7,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 7
      },
      "id": 58,
      "links": [],
      "options": {},
      "pageSize": null,
      "repeat": "Database",
      "repeatDirection": "h",
      "scopedVars": {
        "Database": {
          "selected": true,
          "text": "",
          "value": ""
        }
      },
      "showHeader": true,
      "sort": {
        "col": 3,
        "desc": true
      },
      "styles": [
        {
          "alias": "Table",
          "align": "auto",
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "pattern": "table_name.keyword",
          "type": "string"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Index",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "decimals": 2,
          "pattern": "index_name.keyword",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "string",
          "unit": "short"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Lookups",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_lookups",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "short"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Scans",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_scans",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "short"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Seeks",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_seeks",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "short"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Total Usage",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 3,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Bucket Script",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "short"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Updates",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": null,
          "colors": [
            "rgba(245, 54, 54, 0.9)",
            "rgba(237, 129, 40, 0.89)",
            "rgba(50, 172, 45, 0.97)"
          ],
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "decimals": 0,
          "mappingType": 1,
          "pattern": "Average user_updates",
          "thresholds": [],
          "type": "number",
          "unit": "short"
        }
      ],
      "targets": [
        {
          "alias": "{{table_name.keyword}}.{{index_name.keyword}}",
          "bucketAggs": [
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "table_name.keyword",
              "id": "5",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "6",
                "size": "5"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            },
            {
              "fake": true,
              "field": "index_name.keyword",
              "id": "3",
              "settings": {
                "min_doc_count": 1,
                "order": "desc",
                "orderBy": "6",
                "size": "10"
              },
              "type": "terms"
            }
          ],
          "metrics": [
            {
              "field": "user_lookups",
              "hide": true,
              "id": "1",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_scans",
              "hide": true,
              "id": "6",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_seeks",
              "hide": true,
              "id": "7",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            },
            {
              "field": "select field",
              "id": "8",
              "meta": {},
              "pipelineVariables": [
                {
                  "name": "var1",
                  "pipelineAgg": "1"
                },
                {
                  "name": "var2",
                  "pipelineAgg": "6"
                },
                {
                  "name": "var3",
                  "pipelineAgg": "7"
                },
                {
                  "name": "var4",
                  "pipelineAgg": "9"
                }
              ],
              "settings": {
                "script": "params.var4/(params.var1+params.var2+params.var3)"
              },
              "type": "bucket_script"
            },
            {
              "field": "user_updates",
              "hide": true,
              "id": "9",
              "meta": {},
              "settings": {},
              "type": "avg"
            }
          ],
          "query": "database_name.keyword:$Database AND user_lookups:[0 TO 100] AND user_scans:[0 TO 100] AND user_seeks:[0 TO 100]",
          "refId": "A",
          "timeField": "@timestamp"
        }
      ],
      "timeFrom": null,
      "timeShift": null,
      "title": "$Database - Underutilised indexes",
      "transform": "table",
      "type": "table"
    },
    {
      "collapsed": false,
      "datasource": null,
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 1,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 14
      },
      "id": 91,
      "panels": [],
      "title": "Missing Indexes",
      "type": "row"
    },
    {
      "columns": [],
      "datasource": "Elasticsearch [missing-indexes]",
      "fontSize": "100%",
      "gridPos": {
        "h": 5,
        "w": 24,
        "x": 0,
        "y": 15
      },
      "id": 89,
      "interval": "30m",
      "links": [],
      "maxPerRow": 2,
      "options": {},
      "pageSize": null,
      "repeat": "Database",
      "repeatDirection": "v",
      "scopedVars": {
        "Database": {
          "selected": true,
          "text": "",
          "value": ""
        }
      },
      "scroll": true,
      "showHeader": true,
      "sort": {
        "col": 6,
        "desc": true
      },
      "styles": [
        {
          "alias": "Table",
          "align": "auto",
          "dateFormat": "YYYY-MM-DD HH:mm:ss",
          "pattern": "table_name.keyword",
          "type": "string"
        },
        {
          "alias": "Index",
          "align": "auto",
          "colorMode": "value",
          "colors": [
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